Ordenes de insectos

Ordenes de insectos

Cada (especie de) insecto es identificado por un complejo sistema de clasificación.

El reino animal se divide en filos, clases (insectos son la clase más grande del phylum, o filo, arthropoda), órdenes, familias, géneros y especies.

 

 

 

 

ORDENES DE INSECTOSEJEMPLOS NÚMERO DE ESPECIESCARACTERÍSTICAS
Dipluros 700 Insectos que se muestran activos principalmente de noche. Distribuidos por todo el mundo, viven por lo general en el suelo y suelen tener cuerpos blancos, largas antenas y carecer de ojos y alas.
Proturos 200 Insectos diminutos e incapaces de volar que se alimentan de materia orgánica en descomposición. Tienen cabezas en forma de cono y carecen de antenas.
Colémbolos Saltarín 2.000 Los colémbolos tienen colores apagados, son capaces de saltar y suelen vivir en el suelo, donde se alimentan de materia vegetal en descomposición.
Tisanuros Pececillos de plata 650 Se caracterizan por presentar largas antenas y cuerpos ahusados cubiertos de escamas diminutas.
Efemerópteros Efímeras 2.000 Insectos frágiles con dos pares de alas: un par anterior de forma triangular y un par posterior de forma redondeada. En muchas especies los adultos mueren unas horas o unos días después de alcanzar la madurez.
Odonatos Libélulas, caballitos del diablo 5.000 Se caracterizan por presentar antenas cortas, una aguda visión y cuatro grandes alas que suelen tener brillantes colores.
Plecópteros Moscas de las piedras 1.700 Grupo de insectos primitivos cuyos primeros estadios se desarrollan en el agua. Los adultos suelen tener alas delicadas y transparentes y largas antenas.
Grilloblátidos 21 Insectos primitivos con características intermedias entre los grillos y las cucarachas.
Ortópteros Saltamontes, grillos 18.000 Insectos saltadores, la mayoría de los cuales pueden usar sus alas delanteras para producir sonidos.
Fásmidos Insectos palo, insectos hoja 2.500 Incluye los insectos palo, que parecen palos, y los insectos hoja, con aspecto de hojas. Estos insectos, que viven en densas zonas arbustivas, en regiones tropicales, son ante todo vegetarianos.
Dermápteros Tijeretas 1.500 Se caracterizan por presentar al final del abdomen dos cercos duros en forma de pinza. La tijereta común suele vivir en jardines, donde se alimenta de desperdicios.
Embiópteros Tejedores 300 Insectos pequeños que viven en grupos y son muy comunes en los trópicos. Construyen túneles revestidos de seda y redes debajo de las piedras y en el suelo.
Dictiópteros Cucarachas, mantis 5.500 Insectos con cabezas triangulares y largas antenas. Las cucarachas suelen alimentarse de desperdicios y mostrarse activas por la noche. Las mantis capturan sus presas durante el día; suelen camuflarse para parecer hojas o flores.
Isópteros Termes 2.000 Insectos sociales, constructores de nidos, con cuerpos blandos, blanquecinos o incoloros y fuertes mandíbulas cortantes.
Zorápteros 30 Insectos extremadamente pequeños que viven en climas cálidos y húmedos, a menudo en la madera podrida. En la misma especie se incluyen individuos con alas y sin alas.
Psocópteros Piojos de los libros 2.000 Insectos muy pequeños, a menudo con abdómenes redondeados, que se alimentan de desperdicios. Suelen habitar en el interior de las viviendas, a menudo en las tapicerías o en los libros viejos. Tanto los adultos como las larvas pueden producir seda.
Malófagos Piojos mordedores 3.000 Insectos pequeños y sin alas con mandíbulas adaptadas para masticar más que para cortar. Suelen encontrarse en la piel de las aves y a veces de los mamíferos, donde se alimentan de fragmentos de piel, secreciones cutáneas, plumas y pelos.
Anopluros Piojos chupadores 500 Insectos diminutos similares a piojos. Presentan mandíbulas adaptadas para la succión. Al vivir en la piel de las aves y de los mamíferos, contribuyen a propagar algunas enfermedades, como la fiebre tifoidea.
Hemípteros Chinches, zapateros 23.000 Se caracterizan por presentar piezas bucales perforadoras, utilizadas para alimentarse tanto de tejidos vegetales como animales.
Homópteros Cigarras, pulgones, insectos escama 38.000 Presentan un aparato bucal, en forma de pico, de tipo perforador. Se alimentan de savia.
Tisanópteros Trips 5.000 Insectos pequeños con largos cilios en el borde de las alas.
Neurópteros Hormigas león, crisopas 6.450 Se caracterizan por presentar largas antenas, mandíbulas masticadoras y dos pares de grandes alas, de intrincada nerviación.
Coleópteros Escarabajos 370.000 Constituyen el mayor orden de insectos. Los escarabajos presentan el tegumento esclerotizado y las mandíbulas masticadoras. Los adultos se alimentan de plantas y suelen tener dos pares de alas.
Estresípteros 370 Insectos pequeños semejantes a escarabajos que parasitan insectos mayores. Las hembras llevan una vida sedentaria y son visitadas por los machos, que vuelan rápidamente con sus alas, las cuales producen un ligero zumbido.
Mecópteros Moscas escorpión 450 Tienen cuerpos alargados y cabezas con extensiones en forma de pico.
Sifonápteros Pulgas 2.400 Parásitos sin alas que succionan la sangre de los mamíferos y las aves. Sus fuertes patas traseras les permiten saltar de un huésped a otro.
Dípteros Moscas, mosquitos, tábanos 100.000 Conocidos como moscas verdaderas, están considerados los voladores más hábiles de todos los insectos, con capacidad para volar hacia delante, hacia atrás y hacia los lados. Con algunas excepciones, todos tienen un par de alas y unas estructuras llamadas balancines que les permiten mantener el equilibrio mientras vuelan.
Lepidópteros Mariposas, polillas 160.000 Dos pares de alas, cubiertas de millares de imbricadas escamas de variados colores. Tienen grandes ojos compuestos y mandíbulas modificadas para succionar el néctar de las plantas. Las orugas, las formas larvarias, suelen alimentarse de hojas de plantas.
Tricópteros Frigáneas 10.000 Los adultos parecen deslustradas polillas, pero sus alas no están cubiertas de escamas, sino de finos pelos. Tienen cuerpos alargados y mandíbulas poco desarrolladas; suelen vivir cerca del agua.
Himenópteros Hormigas, abejas, avispas 150.000 Algunos son conocidos por su organización altamente desarrollada, pero la mayoría de las especies no son sociales. Todas tienen mandíbulas adaptadas para la masticación y experimentan una metamorfosis completa.

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